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    (2023-04) ABDULLAHI, Sani
    Due to continuing decline of traditional indigo dyeing and availability of synthetic dyes, most occupational dyeing in Kano Metropolis today is done with vat dyes. The dyeing activities are scarcely documented to have an incline on who are the dyers and what they actually do. If dyeing/mercerizing wastewater is poorly managed, it may contaminate groundwater in the neighbourhood. If proper dyeing conditions are not employed, quality characteristics of the dyed material may be inferior. The aim of this study is to survey the occupational dyers, assess the environmental impacts of the dyeing activities, and improve on the dyeing processes. Baseline information was obtained using a structured questionnaire from 226 dyers selected by convenience sampling and the data was complimented with information from focus group discussions. It was found that majority of the dyers were male, of youthful age, natives, and educated. Their work experience ranged from 5 to 31 years (mean = 11.11± 5.01) where about one half of them earn more than the minimum wage of civil servants in the country. The dyers work as informal groups with synthetic vat dye, caustic soda, hydros, and woven fabrics (all imported from China). The dyers face numerous challenges which are rendering them jobless. Samples of caustic soda, hydros and dye powders were selected by purposive sampling from local markets and tested for heavy metals using Agilent 4210 MP-AES. Results show that the concentrations of heavy metals detected in caustic soda and hydros may not be of immediate environmental concern. Metal content of all the dyes investigated were found to be within ecological and toxicological association of dyers and organic pigment manufacturers (ETAD) heavy metal limits for dyes and are therefore safe to use. Effluent and groundwater samples were collected and characterized according to procedures described by American public health association (APHA). Based on the physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals investigated in dye effluent and groundwater samples, the former was found to be non-biodegradable while the latter was found to be unsuitable for drinking and irrigation. Occupational vat dyeing parameters were determined in selected dyehouses. Results showed that the dyers use an average of 21.43±3.46 g/l caustic soda and 18.99±2.05 g/l hydros which can be considered adequate based on previously reported vat dye formulations. An average temperature of 76±4 oC used by the dyers may aid in over-reduction of the dye. Mercerization experiment was carried out with different levels of input variables viz. temperature, time, caustic soda concentration, and fabric type and with shrinkage, tensile strength, and elongation as responses according to central composite design (CCD) by response surface methodology (RSM) using design expert® software version 7 (DX7) software. Multi response optimization of mercerization parameters were carried out using desirability function. The optimal conditions indicated mercerization using 250 g/l caustic soda at 85 oC for 3 min. Five sets of experiments conducted at the optimized conditions resulted in 6.9±0.4 and 9.7±3.6 % average shrinkage, respectively, for blend and cotton fabrics. The elongation of blend and cotton fabrics were 51.6 and 120.85 % higher than those of the original untreated samples. Dyeing experiment was carried out at 60 oC for 10 min. in a liquor ratio of 100:1 with different levels of input variables viz. caustic soda and hydros concentration, fabric type, and dyeing methods and with appearance rating (levelness) as the response. Optimization of dyeing parameters indicated that the use of 10g/l caustic soda and 20 g/l hydros is more desirable. Under the same dyeing conditions, the dry dyeing method was found to be the best for cotton fabric with an appearance rating of more than 98.8 %. It is suggested for the mercerized samples to be washed before wet-on-wet dyeing to avoid unlevelness. All finished fabrics (dyed and beaten locally) were found to have inferior strength compared to untreated and unmercerized samples. It is suggested for the finishing (beating) operation to be avoided. Fastness ratings of samples from the dyeing experiments are much better than those obtained from the occupational dyers. Soaping of dyed samples is suggested for improved fastness properties.
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    (2023-11) SAIDU, Ibrahim
    This study investigates "Utilization of Search Skills for Retrieval of online information Resources among Arabic Academics of the Federal College of Education, Zaria." In order to achieve this objective, five (5) research questions were formulated, among which are: What types of search skills are possessed by Arabic academics for retrieval of online information resources in FCE Zaria? What types of information search strategies are used for retrieval of online information resources among Arabic academics in FCE Zaria? A quantitative research method was adopted, and a case study research design was employed in the conduct of this study. The population of this study consists of twenty-nine (29) academics in the Department of Arabic at the Federal College of Education, Zaria. 2019/2020 academic session. The instrument for data collection was questionnaire. A total of twenty-nine (29) copies of the questionnaire were administered to Arabic academics at the Federal College of Education, Zaria, with a total return rate of 28 (96.6%). The data collected for the study were presented and analyzed using descriptive statistics in the form of frequency count, simple percentage, and mean. The findings arising from the studies indicated that the types of information search skills possessed by Arabic academics in Federal College of Education Zaria were the ability to think before searching, the ability to search a specific site, the ability to search by author, the ability to search by keyword, and the ability to keep it simple. The types of information search strategies used for retrieval of online information resources by Arabic academics in Federal College of Education Zaria were the use of search engine, the use of file search, and the use of phrase searching. Based on the findings of this study, it could be concluded that the majority of Arabic academics in FCE Zaria were not accessing and utilizing available information resources due to lack of information search skills and search strategies. This could be necessitated due to the lack of information literacy skills and problems associated with the current trend in ICT. Therefore, the study recommended that there is a need for training on how to access and make use of the available resources with different search skills and search strategies. In order to compete in the 21st century library market, the college should adopt global best practices and immediately create the college library website. This will enhance the college's teaching and research operations. The Federal College of Education Zaria College library should take a leading role in creating more training programs among Arabic academics on information search skills such as ability to narrow search, ability to use punctuation, ability to apply filters, ability to search by subject, ability to search by standard number, and ability to search by title. And the college library should organize workshops for Arabic academics on how to effectively search information resources with different types of information search strategies such as the use of Boolean operators, truncation, proximity search, parenthesis, and wildcard.
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    (2021) ABUBAKAR, Sirajo Danzangi
    The study examined the Sexual Health Information Access for Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Truck Drivers in Marabar Jos and Tafa Stations in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Five (5) research objectives were formulated in line with five (5) research questions on: Types of Sexual Health Information the truck drivers in Marabar Jos and Tafa Stations in Kaduna State, Nigeria receive for prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Sources of Sexual Health Information the truck drivers in Marabar Jos and Tafa Stations in Kaduna State, Nigeria use for prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and medium through which the truck drivers in Marabar Jos and Tafa Stations in Kaduna State, Nigeria access Sexual Health Information for prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases The research methodology adopted for the study was quantitative research methodology using a survey research design, the total population of the study comprised 75000 long-journey truck drivers plying Nigerian roads from which a sample of 382 truck drivers were drawn. Simple random sampling technique was used. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire. The study found out that truck drivers receive Information on effective condom use, Information on the dangers of STDs, Information on mode of transmission and Information on causes of STDs. Radio, Television, Friends, Internet, Handsets, Newspapers, Billboards, and Mobilizations were the sources they use. Watching Television, discussion with Friends, browsing the Internet and Handsets were the medium through which they access information. Only few access the information by reading Newspapers, Billboards, and attending Mobilizations campaigns on health-related issues. It was concluded that if Sexual Health Information is made available, accessible and disseminated to truck drivers, it will help in reducing the menace of sexually transmitted diseases in our societies. It was recommended that more sexual Sexual Health Information should be made available for truck drivers to use. More Sexual Health Information sources should be provided and made accessible for truckers to use. Truckers should also be taught on how internet and handsets should be accessed effectively.